Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center (PSRC), Shahid Beheshty University of Medical Sciences (SBMU), Tehran, Iran.
school of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
The essential oils are frequently used in food processing industry, perfumery, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Most of the oils obtained by steam distillation and water distillation. It is necessary to specify the best conditions of essential oils production to get much more major compound(s) and higher yield oil. So, fennel oil was selected in this study. The objective of this work was to identify the effect of powder’s particle size, pH of water, method of distillation and using ultrasound on extraction of fennel essential oil (and its major constituent, anethole). We used a statistical method called D-optimal Design that appointed pH, particle size and method for each assay. First, the seeds powder distillated directly. In the second series seeds were placed in an ultrasonic apparatus for 30 minutes. The essential oils were subsequently isolated by two methods, hydro-distillation and steam-distillation in different sizes and pH in Clevenger apparatus. Gas chromatography was used to determine the essential oil composition. Finally, optimum conditions according to the statistical results are as follows: Method: steam distillation, and mesh size: 50. So it shows that steam distillation is more efficiently than water distillation.